The Normans were originally pagan barbarian pirates from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland who began to make destructive plundering raids _____(16)___ European coastal settlements in the 8th century. During the later 9th century ____(17)___ raids on the northern and western coastlands of France grew ____(18)___ scale and frequency, and the Vikings had secured a permanent foothold on Frankish soil in the valley of the lower Seine River by about 900. A Viking named Rollo, who had already won a ___(19)___ as a great leader of Viking raiders in Scotland and Ireland, soon ____(20)___ as the outstanding personality among the new settlers.

16) A) on B) in C) into D) at E) under

17) A) they B) them C) its D) their E) it

18) A) on B) in C) at D) above E) below

19) A) reputation B) repetition C) recognizance

D) recognizor E) reduction

20) A) merged B) diverted C) distinguished
D) emerged E) extinguished